Is sourdough bread gluten-free? After all, it is a product of wheat, which has gluten in it. So, why does this bread fare better than other wheat bread types in the gluten department?
This article primarily targets the question, “is sourdough bread gluten-free?” and touches on all other interesting facts about it. So, is this an item that all people with gluten sensitivity can add to their gluten-free diet? Let’s find out.
Is sourdough bread gluten free?
Sourdough bread is not 100% gluten-free as it is commonly made from wheat flour, which contains gluten. Hence, it is one of those gluten foods to avoid and may not be the best for people with celiac disease.
What is sourdough bread?
Sourdough bread is made by fermenting dough with a starter. A sourdough starter uses naturally cultured yeasts, as well as bacteria, to leaven bread. This process breaks down the gluten in the flour.
Thus, it makes the bread more digestible and easier to tolerate for people with gluten sensitivities or gluten intolerance. This style of bread usually has a more complex sour taste than the bread produced with commercial yeast, and it also has a longer shelf life.
Grains used in sourdough bread
Traditional sourdough bread is made using wheat flour. Hard wheat flour is usually the best option. It is easy to work with and gives the best bread rise.
Alternatively, sourdough bread can be made from barley or rye as well. Neither of the grains traditionally used for sourdough is gluten-free. This means that consuming sourdough bread might cause you to fall sick if you have celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity and symptoms of gluten intolerance. However, the risks are much lower than in the case of other bread types.
Does sourdough bread have less gluten than regular bread?
Yes, sourdough bread has lower levels of gluten than regular bread. The fermentation process of sourdough bread breaks down the gluten proteins in the flour. This makes it more digestible and easier to tolerate for people with gluten sensitivities and gluten intolerance.
As per FDA Whole Grains Council: FDA DEFINES GLUTEN-FREE, all products that are labeled gluten-free must have a gluten content below 20 parts per million (ppm). A study shows that wheat originally has 75,000 ppm Whole Grains Council: GLUTEN FREE WHEAT? Q&A DETAILS INTRIGUING RESEARCH (parts per million) of gluten, however as the sourdough bread went through the process of fermentation, the gluten found in it was only 12 ppm. Thus, as per the new gluten-free labeling laws, sourdough bread can be considered gluten-free.
Is sourdough bread OK for gluten intolerance?
No, sourdough bread is not necessarily okay for gluten intolerance. While sourdough fermentation can break down some gluten, it may not be enough to make the bread safe for those with celiac disease or severe gluten intolerance.
Benefits of eating sourdough bread
Sourdough bread is more nutritious than regular bread. In addition, it is not only easier to digest but also has a lower glycemic index. But that’s not all. It has many other benefits, as listed below:
- Eating sourdough bread can also help reduce symptoms related to irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in the body. Thus, this aids digestion and improves gut health.
- All grains and legumes contain phytic acid PubMed: Moderate decrease of pH by sourdough fermentation is sufficient to reduce phytate content of whole wheat flour through endogenous phytase activity, which is known as the “anti-nutrient” and has negative impacts on one’s health. The fermentation process of sourdough bread neutralizes the phytic acid as the yeast pre-digests it. This makes the bread more digestible and makes it easier for nutrients to be absorbed in the body.
- Fermented bread has a high content of leucine and isoleucine – the branch chain amino acids(BCAA). These are two of the nine essential amino acids which are critical to our health. They promote strong and healthy muscle growth.
- The elevated concentration of branch chain amino acids in sourdough also reduces post-meal blood glucose levels by stimulating insulin response.
- Sourdough bread has antioxidants National Library of Medicine: Metabolic profiling of sourdough fermented wheat and rye bread. Antioxidants are known to reduce blood pressure in the body.
- Sourdough is also a good source of vitamins and minerals such as vitamin B and minerals such as iron, potassium, magnesium, and folate.
Who can eat sourdough bread?
People without any wheat allergy can enjoy sourdough bread without hesitating. Moreover, people with fructan intolerances can also enjoy sourdough bread in a limited quantity. The fermentation process also breaks down a carbohydrate found in wheat called fructan. Lastly, it also makes a great vegan option!
Furthermore, we are aware that sourdough bread is not completely gluten-free. Thus, it is not the best choice for people with celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity as they cannot tolerate even a small amount of gluten.
However, a study PubMed: Safety for patients with celiac disease of baked goods made of wheat flour hydrolyzed during food processing showed its effects on celiac patients, wherein the patients ate about 200 grams of sweet baked goods daily. These sweet goods were all prepared by using specially fermented flour.
The wheat flour used originally had around 10 grams of gluten that had been completely broken down and digested by the “good” bacteria and fungi during the fermentation process. The trial lasted 60 days. The results showed that all the patients completely tolerated the sweet baked goods.
Despite the proof of the study, if you have gluten sensitivity, it is best to try other gluten-free bread alternatives. You may also try your own homemade sourdough bread.
You can prevent yourself from exposure to gluten if you make gluten-free sourdough using gluten-free flour such as brown rice flour, sorghum, millet, tapioca, potato, etc.
Types of gluten-free sourdough bread
Although traditional sourdough bread is made of wheat which has gluten, there are many types of gluten-free sourdough bread available on the market. These are made with gluten-free sourdough starters and gluten-free flour.
Some of the popular types of gluten-free sourdough bread are:
- Buckwheat Sourdough Bread
- Brown Rice Flour Sourdough Bread
- Garbanzo Bean Flour Sourdough Bread
- Teff Sourdough Bread
- Quinoa Sourdough Bread
- Pure Oat Flour Sourdough Bread
- Almond Flour Sourdough Bread
- Arrowroot Flour Sourdough Bread
- Tapioca Flour Sourdough Bread
- Potato Flour Sourdough Bread
- Coconut Flour Sourdough Bread
- Sorghum Flour Sourdough Bread
You can bake your own sourdough bread at home by using the above-mentioned variety of gluten-free flours. If you do not like to bake at home, you can purchase gluten-free sourdough bread from reliable bakeries or stores.
Tips to know if the sourdough bread is authentic
If you haven’t experienced making your own sourdough bread or have always used store-bought one, then you may not have truly eaten authentic sourdough. The tips mentioned below will allow you to spot a real sourdough so that you know what to look for the next time you purchase one.
When purchasing sourdough bread
- Ensure you check the ingredient list. A true sourdough bread should only have flour, water, salt, and starter culture. Watch out for labels that read “bleached” or “bromate.” Bread that has been treated with bleaching agents is not sourdough. Bromate is a cancer-causing chemical and is banned in many countries.
- Ensure that the sourdough bread does not have any sugars or any instant/dried yeast added to it.
- If the sourdough bread has a short expiry, it is probably faux.
- If you are purchasing pre-sliced sourdough, make sure that the slices are not too thin. This is an indication that the bread has been over-processed.
When eating at restaurants
- Check if the bread is made in-house. If not, ask where they source their sourdough from and how it is prepared. If the restaurant serves you a very soft and fluffy sourdough, it is most likely not the real deal. A good sourdough should have a crusty exterior with a soft and chewy interior.
To sum up, this culture of leavened bread has traveled and spread through the world – from Egypt to Mexico to Europe and beyond. Although it was introduced to Americans in the 18th century, it has been a staple ever since. This sourdough bread is not completely gluten-free.
However, if you wish to consume a gluten-free version, look for bakeries that specialize in gluten-free baking or bake it at home using a gluten-free starter culture and flour. With the right recipe, you can easily make a delicious and nutritious loaf of gluten-free sourdough bread.
What kind of bread has the least gluten?
Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, which gives bread its structure and elasticity. However, there are some breads with low gluten content, such as sourdough bread, spelt bread, and gluten-free bread made with alternative flours like rice, almond, or coconut flour. These options may be more suitable for individuals with gluten sensitivities or celiac disease.
Are any breads naturally gluten-free?
Yes, there are several breads that are naturally gluten-free, such as cornbread, rice bread, and quinoa bread. These breads are made with flours that do not contain gluten, making them safe for those with celiac disease or gluten intolerance to consume. However, it is important to check the ingredients and production process of any bread before consuming it to ensure that it is truly gluten-free.
Is sourdough the healthiest bread?
Sourdough bread can be considered healthier than regular bread due to its natural fermentation process, which can make it easier to digest and potentially lower the glycemic index. It also contains more vitamins and minerals than commercial bread. However, the overall healthiness of bread also depends on the type of flour used and any added ingredients, so it’s important to choose high-quality, whole-grain sourdough bread.
|↑1||Whole Grains Council: FDA DEFINES GLUTEN-FREE|
|↑2||Whole Grains Council: GLUTEN FREE WHEAT? Q&A DETAILS INTRIGUING RESEARCH|
|↑3||PubMed: Moderate decrease of pH by sourdough fermentation is sufficient to reduce phytate content of whole wheat flour through endogenous phytase activity|
|↑4||National Library of Medicine: Metabolic profiling of sourdough fermented wheat and rye bread|
|↑5||PubMed: Safety for patients with celiac disease of baked goods made of wheat flour hydrolyzed during food processing|